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Visit São Paulo in Brazil
Visit São Paulo in Brazil

The region of the current state of Sao Paulo was already inhabited by indigenous peoples from about 12000 AC13 Around the year 1000, their coastline was invaded by people coming from the Tupi Amazônia14. In the early sixteenth century, the São Paulo coast had already been visited by Portuguese and Spanish navigators, but only in 1532 was made the foundation of the first settlement of European origin, Saint Vincent, in the current Santos, by Martim Afonso de Sousa. With the creation of the village of São Vicente, settled, the first parliament in the Americas: the Chamber of Vila de São Vicente. There were also the first elections in the Americas. Demand for precious metals led the Portuguese to overcome the Coast Range, the ancient Indian way of Peabiru and, in 1554, the existing plateau after the Serra do Mar, founded the village of São Paulo de Piratininga by the Jesuits led by Manuel da Nobrega. By the end of the sixteenth century, the Portuguese founded other villages in the surrounding plateau, as Santana de Parnaíba, thus ensuring the safety and livelihood of St. Paulo.15 village "St. Vincent Foundation", by Benedito Calixto The foundation of São Vicente on the coast Brazil began the colonization process as a systematic policy of the Portuguese government, motivated by the presence of foreigners who threatened the possession of terra.16 course, before that, there was a Portuguese nucleus, like of other coastal regions, consisting of castaways and out dated, probably from the early sixteenth century. It was, however, during the stay of Martim Afonso de Sousa that was founded in January 20, 1532, the village of São Vicente and it installed the first effective framework of colonization brasileira.17 The coastal strip, close by the presence of the Serra do Mar, did not have the necessary conditions for the development of commercial agriculture. In turn, the plateau faced with the serious obstacle of the Way of the Sea, which, instead of connecting, isolated the region Piratininga, denying access to the ocean and therefore the ease of transport. Consequently, the captaincy was relegated to a lower economic level, prevented from successfully cultivate the main agricultural product of colonial Brazil, cane sugar, and to compete with the main sugar area at the time, represented by Pernambuco and Bahia. 18 It was established in Piratininga a polyculture of subsistence, based on the forced Indian labor. Inventories of São Paulo the 1st accused small amount of imports and complete absence of luxury. The isolation created on the plateau a peculiar society. Getting to São Paulo require special fiber in the fight against the difficulties of access to the hill, the attacks of the Indians, hunger, disease, leading European immigration to a rigorous selection process. Such living conditions determine the formation of a society more democratic way that the one that had settled over north of colônia.18 The flags [edit | edit source] See also: Inputs and flags and Bandeirantes The Bandeirantes, oil on Henrique Bernardelli screen (1889). Economic difficulties, tino frontiersman, geographic location (São Paulo was an important center of river and land movement), spirit of adventure, would be powerful impulses in the rush to the hinterland. From the earliest days of colonization were constant rushes, a defensive bandeirismo aimed to ensure the Sao Paulo expansion of the seventeenth century. This would be the great century of flags, one in which the offensive would begin bandeirismo itself, whose purpose was largely the immediate profit provided by the Indian hunting. The village of São Paulo left the boarding flags headed by Antonio Raposo Tavares, Manuel Preto, André Fernandes, among outros.18 The peculiar conditions of life on the plateau allowed the São Paulo during the first two centuries, could enjoy considerable autonomy in sectors such as defense, relations with the Indians, ecclesiastical administration, public works and municipal services, price control and mercadorias.19 The bandeirismo of boarding went to the miner bandeirismo, when the activity of Borba Gato, Bartolomeu Bueno da Silva, Pascoal Moreira Cabral and others was rewarded with the meeting of the auriferous veins in Minas Gerais and Mato Grosso. Ordeal was the effect of the discovery of gold on St. Paul and other highland villages: all sought the immediate enrichment represented by precioso.20 metal Thus, the settlement of Brazilian backlands made with sacrifice of the inhabitants of São Paulo and at the expense of population density of the captaincy. This demographic rupture, combined with geographic factors mentioned above (the Serra do Mar), caused a drop in agricultural productivity and the decline of other activities, which accentuated the poverty of the people in the course of the eighteenth century. The captaincy, which then covered the whole area of ​​the gold discoveries, was transferred to the crown and there settled government itself in 1709, separate government of Rio de Janeiro and with headquarters in the village of São Paulo, elevated to city status in 1711.19 Gold cycle, decay and restore the captaincy [edit | edit source] See also: War of Emboabas and Province of São Paulo State territory in the Brazilian administrative division 1709 In the late seventeenth century, São Paulo pioneers discover gold in the Rio das Mortes region, near the current São João del Rei. The discovery of huge deposits of gold causes a race towards the Minas Gerais, as they were called at the time the numerous deposits of gold by explorers coming both São Paulo and other parts of the colony. As discoverers of mines, the Paulistas demanded exclusivity in gold exploration, but were defeated in 1710 with the end of Emboabas War, losing control of Minas Gerais, which becomes autonomous captaincy in 1721. The gold mined in Minas Gerais would be drained via Rio de Janeiro.21 The exodus towards the Minas Gerais caused the economic decline in the captaincy, and during the eighteenth century it was losing territory and economic dynamism to be simply attached in 1748 to the captaincy of Rio de Janeiro. Thus, shortly before being attached to Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo lost territory to the creation of the Captaincy of Goiás and the Captaincy of Mato Grosso. These two captaincies today correspond to the states of Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Rondônia, Goiás, Tocantins, Federal District and the Triangle Mineiro.22 In 1765, by Matthew Morgado's efforts is reinstituted the Province of São Paulo and this promotes the production of sugar incentive policy to ensure the sustenance of the captaincy. The captaincy is however restored with about a third of its original territory, comprising only the current states of São Paulo and Paraná and part of Santa Catarina. Matthew's Morgado created Lages village and Campo Mourao for the defense of the captaincy. Several other towns were created, such as Campinas and Piracicaba, which did not happen since the early eighteenth century in São Paulo, where soon cane sugar develops se.22 The captaincy of São Paulo wins political weight, during the time of the Independence of Brazil, by the figure of Jose Bonifacio, born in Santos, and September 7, 1822 the Independence is proclaimed on the banks of Ipiranga brook in São Paulo, by Don Peter I. In 1821 the captaincy becomes province. In 1853 is created the province of Paraná and São Paulo loses territory for the last time, getting from that date with its current territory, with its current currency fixed definitively only in the late 1930.22 Coffee cycle and Old Republic [edit | edit source] Main articles: Coffee Cycle, coffee with milk and Policy Old Republic Former headquarters of the New York Coffee, in Santos. Founded in 1817 is the first farm São Paulo coffee [citation needed] in the valley of the Paraíba do Sul river, and after the independence of Brazil, coffee cultivation gains strength in the lands of Paraíba Valley region, enriching quickly cities like Guaratinguetá, Banana plantation, Lorraine, Pindamonhangaba and Taubaté. The Valley enriches rapidly, generating a rural oligarchy, but the rest of the province is still dependent on cane açúcar23 and trade that will be established in the city of São Paulo, driven by the foundation of a Faculty of Law in 1827.24 However, the exhaustion of Paraíba Valley soils and increasing difficulties imposed on the slave regime lead to a decline in coffee cultivation from 1860 and the Valley will economically emptying while coffee cultivation migrates toward the West Paulista, replacing the cultivation of cane sugar, resulting in great economic and social changes. The prohibition of the slave trade in 1850 brings the need to search for a new form of hand labor and immigration of Europeans is now encouraged by the government and Imperial provincial.25 The flow of grain is now done via the port of Santos, which leads to founding of the first railroad São Paulo, São Paulo Railway, opened in 1867, linking Santos to Jundiaí, through São Paulo, which begins to become important trading post between the coast and the interior cafeeiro.25 Coffee goes gradually entering the western São Paulo; in 1870, the penetration of culture finds fertile farmland purple fields of São Paulo northeast, where emerged the largest and most productive world's coffee plantations. Behind new lands for coffee, explorers are entering the hitherto unknown quadrilateral between the Sierra de Botucatu and Paraná rivers, Tietê and Paranapanema in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century XX.26 The São Paulo south (Ribeira Valley and region Itapeva) does not attract the cultivation of coffee and suffers from border disputes between São Paulo and Paraná, and therefore put separately from the rest of the province development, becoming, to the present day, the poorest region of the state territory .27 Italian immigrants at the Inn of São Paulo Immigrants in 1890. The enrichment caused by coffee and the constant arrival of Italian immigrants, Portuguese, Spanish, Japanese and Arabs to the province, and the development of a large railway network, bring prosperity to St. Paulo.28 It is estimated that 4 million immigrants that Brazil received between 1880 and 1930, 70% of them settled in São Paulo.29 Province The entry of thousands of immigrants was important for São Paulo since represented the growth of the domestic consumer market for other goods produced by the Province, such as sugar, brandy and álcool.30 With this, there is a large economic and population growth in São Paulo between the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century brought by café.31 Cquote1.svg The policy triggered by the São Paulo coffee, stimulating and intensely promoting immigration in much higher proportions to employment opportunities in the field, much favored the growth of the urban population. Cquote2.svg - Izilda Maria Santos Matos32 33rd The censuses of 1872 and 1900 show the real impact of population growth in the city of São Paulo and then São Paulo Province. In 1872, only ten urban locations had more than 30,000 inhabitants, Sao Paulo the only one not located in litoral.29 With a population of 31,385 inhabitants, São Paulo was the capital with the ninth largest population among the 20 provincial capitals censeadas (in comparison, Rio de Janeiro, then called the County Neutral in the country's capital status, was the largest city in Brazil at the time, accounting for 274 972 people), 34 already Sao Paulo province had a population of 837,354, and represented the province with the fifth largest population (compared, Minas Gerais, the province with the largest population of Brazil at the time, accounted for 2,039,735 people) .35 In 1900, both the municipality and the new State of São Paulo now have with the second largest municipal and state population of Brazil: the population of São Paulo explodes to 239,820, leaving the Rio de Janeiro even with the largest population in Brazil (811,443 residents), and the State of São Paulo records of 2,282,279 inhabitants, while the state of Minas Gerais remains with the largest state population (3,594,471). While installing the republic, state clearly whether it economic dominance of the new state. If Brazil was the coffee, the coffee was São Paulo. This reality reflected at the national level, hence the homogeneity 1894-1902, for three consecutive four-year periods, with the Prudente de Morais presidents, Campos Sales and Rodrigues Alves. In the early twentieth century, with the advance of the railroads to Rio Paraná are created dozens of municipalities along the railways Sorocabana Railroad, NOB and Companhia Paulista Railways, occupying the West Paulista.28 Luz Station, one of the symbols of the São Paulo power at the height of the coffee with milk Republic. São Paulo joined with two cards in the Republican era: the coffee wealth and hand labor immigration system, which was introduced before the abolition of slavery and already had adapted and had integrated in the Sao Paulo's agriculture production. Thus equipped, benefiting from the institutional weakness resulting from the proclamation of the republic, England allied its economic power to the electoral strength of Minas Gerais and brought the coffee with milk policy, which had the effect a change in federalism in Brazil, today the visible resultados.36 For this, also ran the enterprise view of their businessmen, farmers mainly that, even in the empire, had learned to use promptly and force political power in defense of their interests econômicos.36 Immediately realized the opportunity of introducing the foreign immigrant and subsidized with the provincial resources, since the imperial government dispensed greater attention to the establishment of colonial settlements than to wage immigration. With the new situation created by the republican regime institution could expand its means of action. Thereafter, until the crisis of 1929, have not lost sight of the expansion and defense of the product that supported the economy região.36 37 Despite internal disagreements and various divisions, the Paulista Republican Party (PRP) was able to maintain great cohesion in the face of the Union, which allowed him to carry forward a policy that satisfying, in general, the dominant interests and undeniably contributed to the prestigious Sao Paulo within the federação.37 The president of Sao Paulo from 1916 to 1920, Dr. Altino Arantes Marques faced 5G: the First World War, the great frost of 1918 General Strike of 1917, the Spanish flu and the locust invasion in São Paulo. 38 In 1924, during the presidency of Carlos Campos, takes place in São Paulo, both in the capital and the interior, the Revolution of 1924, which requires Carlos de Campos to leave the capital. Happen destruction and depredations and bomber from the federal government. The rebels are defeated and are heading into the Brasil.39 Washington Luis arrives for president in 1926, but was deposed on 24 October 1930.40 Blow 1930 and 1932 Revolution [edit | edit source] See also: Hit 1930 and 1932 Constitutional Revolution Poster MMDC calling the Paulista people to arms during the 1932 Revolution. On 1 March 1930, the president of São Paulo, the Paulista Júlio Prestes, was elected president of the republic, but has not taken possession, prevented by the Revolution of 1930, which also brought down the presidency of Washington Luis republic was president of São Paulo between 1920 and 1924.40 São Paulo then was ruled by the winners of the 1930 Revolution and soon rebelled against this situation starring the Revolution of 1932. Julio Prestes and Washington Luis were exiled. The PRP supporters newspapers were destruídos.40 41 The 1930s in São Paulo was characterized, from the economic point of view, the adjustment efforts to the new conditions created by the global crisis of 1929 and the collapse of coffee. From a political point of view, the period was marked by the struggle for the recovery of São Paulo's hegemony in the federation, reached by Liberal Alliance and finally destroyed by the revolution of 1930.41 This subjected the state to the action of federal stakeholders, which, at first, or São Paulo were. Soon followed claims in favor of a state government, which, in the version of the winners of the 1930 Revolution, was seen as an attempt to restore the Paulistas hegemonic groups whose interests, both economic and political, were being harmed by the new situation. 41 Used to drive your own destiny, the ruling classes rebelled under the leadership of the Democratic Party, then chaired by Professor Francisco Morato, just the party allied to the Vargas revolution of 1930.42 The political organization broke, however, with the federal government and provided with the conservative classes and the old PRP, the Paulista United Front. This sought alliance with other states, particularly with the state's opposition, but after all the Paulistas rebelled, 42 with only the support of the State of Marazion troops (current Mato Grosso do Sul) .43 On July 9, 1932, broke the constitutional revolution of. Ruled the state as federal intervenor, the São Paulo Pedro Manuel de Toledo, just proclaimed governor. Formed volunteer battalions, and joined the movement some army units, a strong contingent of Mato Grosso and almost all of the police estadual.42 initially were mobilized fifty thousand men, whose command fell to General Bertoldo Klingler, and then to Colonel Euclides de Oliveira Figueiredo.43 The industry took part in the revolution with enthusiasm. Under the direction of Roberto Cochrane Simonsen, all the São Paulo industrial park was placed at the service of rebellion, dedicated to war production. It also organized domestic supply. The fight lasted, however, only three months and ended with the defeat of Sao Paulo and the loss of hundreds of vidas.43 few months after the capitulation, the federal government in order to pacify the country, decided to hold elections for the Constituent Assembly, responding to the main goal of the São Paulo revolutionaries: the restoration of constitutional order. Meanwhile, England was occupied militarily October 1932 to August 1933 were exiled former Governor Pedro de Toledo, its secretariat and other politicians who took an active part in revolução.43 Industrialization and metropolization [edit | edit source] Altino Arantes Building in Sao Paulo, opened in 1947 is an expression of economic power of the state at the time. Headquarters Mercedes-Benz Brazil in São Bernardo do Campo After World War I, the cultivation of coffee in the country begins to face oversupply crisis and competition from other countries. The cultivation starts to be controlled by the government, in order to avoid crises and farms close, taking immigrants towards São Paulo, where they become operários.41 political pressures demanding an end to the dominance of Sao Paulo coffee elite arise and artistic movements as the week 1922 propagate new social and economic ideas. The external migration starts to weaken and anarchists and communists strikes burst in Sao Paulo while industrial empires such as Matarazzo are formados.44 In 1930 the coffee enters its final crisis with the Great Depression, the collapse in international prices of grains and the Revolution of 1930, which removes the Paulistas of power. Two years later, in 1932, São Paulo combat Getúlio Vargas in the Constitutionalist Revolution, in an attempt to regain lost power, but is defeated militarily. The coffee crisis is amplified and the rural exodus towards the city of São Paulo empties the inside of estado.41 In the Estado Novo with Ademar de Barros as governor and Prestes Maia mayor of São Paulo, the state enters in a new development phase with the construction of major roads and power plants hidrelétricas.45 The Second World War interrupted imports of products and the São Paulo industry begins a process of import substitution, and to produce in the state the products formerly imported. The process intensifies in the government of Juscelino Kubitschek, who lays the foundation of the automotive industry in the ABC paulista.23 To supply the necessary labor, the state began to receive millions of Northeastern, replacing the old immigrants, who now compose the middle class São Paulo, as operários.46 This rapid population growth fosters a process of becoming cities, where the city São Paulo crowds with neighboring cities, forming the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo.47 Highway Washington Luis, one of São Paulo development vectors. In the 1960s and 1970s the state government promotes several works that encourage the economy in the state, emptied from the coffee crisis in 1930. The opening and duplication of Via Dutra (BR-116) recovers and industrializing the Paraíba Valley, that focuses around the aircraft industry of São José dos Campos.48 For the West, the implementation of Viracopos International Airport, the creation of the State University of Campinas (Unicamp) opening highways as Anhanguera Highway and Highway Bandeirantes and Washington Louis the implement of modern production techniques, in particular cane sugar and its by-product, alcohol fuel, again take progress to the regions of Campinas, Sorocaba, Central, Ribeirão Preto and Franca.49 This economic recovery process of the interior intensifies from the 1980s, when many urban problems, such as violence, pollution and unplanned occupation, afflict the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo.50 Between 1980 and 2000 the vast majority of investments in state was taken out of the capital, which changed from an industrial city to a center of services and finance. The interior becomes industrialized and prosperous, especially among Campinas axes - Piracicaba - Sao Carlos - Ribeirao Preto - Sorocaba - São José dos Campos - Taubaté.51 However, even with the enhancement and industrialization of the interior, other states now have an economic growth rate even higher than São Paulo, especially the South and Midwest. Currently, although the growth is not as high and there is competition from other states, São Paulo is the main economic and industrial center of South America, the largest consumer market in Brazil. Geography [edit | edit source] Main article: Geography of Sao Paulo Satellite image showing the entire state territory and part of the states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Parana and Mato Grosso do Sul. Sao Paulo is one of 27 federal units of Brazil, located southwest of the Southeast. The state area is 248 km² 222.801, mostly above the Tropic of Capricorn, and the thirteenth federal state in Brazil the area and the second in the Southeast, behind only Gerais Gerais.3 The distance between its endpoints north-south is 611 km, and 923 km east-west between the extremes. The state's time zone follows the Brasilia time, which is three hours behind the Meridian Greenwich.52 borders with the states of Minas Gerais to the north and northeast, the Paraná south, and the Rio de Janeiro north and Mato Grosso do Sul west, across the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, with 3 670.8 km line divisória.8 53 The coast of São Paulo, with 622 km long, has 293 beaches in sixteen municipalities, all classified as "spas" 54 55 Among the busiest are Pitangueiras, in Guaruja, and the Gonzaga in Santos.56 Have the most beautiful are the Bonete, Ilhabela, also considered as the most beautiful beach in Brazil, and the Treasury, in Ubatuba.57 Stone Mine, the highest point in the state of São Paulo. The state has a relatively high relief, having 85% of its surface between three hundred and nine hundred meters above sea level, 8% below three hundred meters and 7% higher than the nine metros.58 Most of its territory is situated in the Paraná Sedimentary Basin which has basaltic soils, latossólicos, purple and podzolic lands and is formed by the Peripheral Depression, with altitudes between 600 and 750 meters, and the Western Plateau Paulista, the largest geomorphological unit of São Paulo, occupying about half of the state territory, in addition to cuestas, formed by volcanic rocks of basalt. The Cenozoic sedimentary basin, São Paulo east, has hills and consists of latosols. The Orogenic Belt Atlantic covers the Atlantic Plateau, an area of ​​transition between the Cenozoic sedimentary basins and Paraná, formed by cambisoils, neossolocos litholic latosols and podzolic soils, with average altitudes between 700 and 2000 meters. The coastline consists of plains below three hundred meters of altitude, that border the Serra do Mar.52 Located in the Mountain range, Mina Stone, with 2 798.39 meters above sea level, is the highest point in the territory São Paulo and the fifth of país.59 Hydrography [edit | edit source]  See page: List of rivers of São Paulo Tietê river at the dam between Bonita and Tietê Igaraçu. São Paulo has its territory divided into 21 watersheds, 60 inserted in three river basin districts, the largest of which is the Paraná, covering much of the state territory. Of note is the Rio Grande, born in Minas Gerais and São Paulo separates this north and to join with the Rio Parnaíba, form the Paraná River, which separates São Paulo Mato Grosso do Sul.61 Two major tributaries rivers São Paulo the left bank of the Paraná River are the Paranapanema, 930 miles long and a natural divider between São Paulo and Paraná in most of their curso62 and the Tietê, which has a length of 1136 km and runs through the southeast of the state territory northwest, from its source in Salesópolis, to its mouth in the city of Itapura.63 64 The river basin of the Atlantic Southeast includes, in general, only small rivers that descend from the Serra do Mar and cross the coastal plain towards the ocean. The Paraíba do Sul River, formed by the junction of Paraitinga and Paraibuna rivers, is the largest and most important, with 1150 km long, crossing the region of the Vale and penetrating in the state of Rio de Janeiro, where is great part of your curso.65 66 also highlights the Ribeira do Iguape, the most important river of the San Paulo.52 coast Finally, there is the river basin of the South Atlantic, which is located in the extreme south of São Paulo and near border with the state of Paraná, formed by small rivers flowing directly into oceano.67 Other important rivers are the state are Guacu Alligator, Alligator-Pepira, Moji-Guaçu, Pardo, Fish, Piracicaba and Turvo.8 Climate [edit | edit source] Campos do Jordao, the municipality with the highest altitude of Brazil (1628 meters) and one of the coldest cities in the country (average temperature of 8.1 ° C) .68 Beach Witch in the city of Ilhabela. The climate is humid tropical or tropical coastal atlântico.69 The state's territory covers seven different climate types, taking into account the temperature and rainfall. In the mountain areas of the state, there are subtropical climates (CFA in climatic classification of Köppen), in areas of higher altitude, as the Serra da Mantiqueira and the Sea, having humid, hot summers and average temperatures of less than eighteen degrees in the month coldest of the year; and oceanic (Cfb and Cwb), with regular rains and well distributed throughout the year and summers more amenos.70 On the coast, the climate is very humid tropical type, very similar to the prevailing equatorial climate in the Amazon (Af), with rainfall exceeding sixty monthly mm in all months of the year, without the existence of a dry season. The tropical climate of altitude (Cwa), predominant in the state's territory, specifically in the center of the state, is characterized by a rainy season in the summer and a dry winter, with temperatures above 22 degrees in the hottest month of the year. In other areas, there is semiúmido climate (Aw) with rainfall below 60 mm in one or more months of the year and warmer, with average temperatures greater than eighteen degrees during the year. There are also small areas characteristics of monsoon (Am) .70 The occurrence of snow is very rare, but has been recorded in Campos do Jordao and there are also reports that the phenomenon occurred in various parts of the south of the state, except for Ribeira.71 Valley 72 Frosts are common, especially in higher areas with altitude over eight hundred metros.73 Environment [edit | edit source] Ipe-yellow-armored catfish (Tabebuia chrysotricha) in Avare, typical cerrado tree. Most of the natural vegetation of the state of São Paulo is formed by the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. The first, with its typical rich fauna and flora, covering 81.8% of the state's territory at the time of Portuguese colonization and was quite devastated, especially during the coffee westward expansion in the twentieth century, leaving today only 8.3% the original remaining, spread into several fragments, protected by state law.

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