Visit Rio de Janeiro in Brazil
Visit Rio de Janeiro in Brazil

The Rio de janeiro (often referred to simply as Rio11) is a Brazilian city, capital of the homonymous state, located in the southeast of the country. Major route of international tourism in Brazil, 12 in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere, 12 the state capital is the Brazilian city better known abroad, 13 14 functioning as a "mirror" or "portrait" national, whether positive or negatively. It is the second largest city in Brazil (after Brazil), the sixth largest in the Americas and the thirty-fifth of the world. Has the wonderful city of epithet and that which is born it is called Rio. City part was designated Cultural Heritage, named "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscape between the Mountain and the Sea", classified by UNESCO on 1 July 2012.15 16

It is a major economic centers, cultural and financial of the country, is internationally known for several cultural and landscape icons such as the Sugar Loaf, Corcovado Mountain with Christ the Redeemer statue, the beaches of the neighborhoods of Copacabana, Ipanema and Barra da Tijuca (among others), the Maracanã Stadium, the stadium Nilton Santos, the bohemian neighborhood of Lapa, and their bows, the Municipal Theater of Rio de Janeiro, the forests of Tijuca and Pedra Branca, Quinta da Boa Vista, National Library, the island of Paqueta, New Year's Eve in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro carnival, bossa nova and samba.

Represents the second largest GDP in the country17 (and the 30th largest in the mundo18), estimated at about 140 billion reais (IBGE / 2007), 9 and is the headquarters of two major Brazilian companies - Petrobras and Vale, and major companies oil and telephony in Brazil, besides the largest conglomerate of media and communications companies in Latin America, Organizations Globo.19 Seen by many universities and institutes, is the second largest center of research and development in Brazil, accounting for 19 % of national scientific production, according to data of 2005. Highlights for the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro who has published 5952 articles between 1998 and 2002.20 Rio de Janeiro is considered a beta world city - at inventory, 2008 at Loughborough University (GaWC) .

It was, successively, the state capital of Brazil (1621-1815), a colony of the Portuguese Empire, from 1763 to 1815, after the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves (1815-1822), the Empire of Brazil (1822-1889 ) and the Republic of the United States of Brazil (1889-1968) until 1960, when the seat of government was transferred to the newly built Brasilia.


Pa Tijuca.

Parks, public spaces and environment
 See page: City Parks of Rio de Janeiro

Imperial palms of Alley Barbosa Rodrigues, in the Botanical Gardens.
The city has parks and ecological reserves, such as the Tijuca National Park, considered "Environmental Heritage and Biosphere Reserve" by UNESCO, the Pedra Branca State Park, the complex of Quinta da Boa Vista and the Botanical Garden) 57, the Zoo Rio, 58 Pedra Branca State Park, 37 Ride Público.59

Due to the high concentration of industries in the metropolitan area, the city has faced serious problems of environmental pollution. The Guanabara Bay lost mangrove areas and suffers from waste from household and industrial waste, heavy oils and metals. Despite its waters are renewed to collide into the sea, the bay is the ultimate recipient of all tributaries generated on its banks and in the basins of many rivers and streams that flow into it. Particulate matter levels in the air are twice higher than recommended by the World Health Organization, in part due to the large fleet of vehicles in circulation. In a survey published by the newspaper Folha de S. Paulo, the Rio de Janeiro was appointed as the fifth most polluted capital of Brazil, second only to São Paulo, Porto Alegre, Belo Horizonte and Curitiba.60 61

Aerial photograph of the Marina da Gloria, part of the Park Eduardo Gomes (or Flamengo).
The Sepetiba Bay waters slowly follow the path traced by the Guanabara Bay, with home sewage produced by a population of about 1.29 million inhabitants being released untreated into Walloons, streams or rivers. With regard to industrial pollution, waste of great toxicity, endowed with high concentrations of heavy metals - mainly zinc and cadmium - have been dumped over the years by factories of the industrial districts of Santa Cruz, Itaguaí and Nova Iguaçu, implanted under the guidance of estaduais.62 policies

The pond Marapendi and the Rodrigo de Freitas lagoon have suffered from the leniency of the authorities and the advancement of the condos on site. The sewage discharged by illegal connections and the consequent proliferation of algae reduce the oxygenation of the water, causing the death of 64 peixes.63

Some beaches of Rio's waterfront, most of the year, are unfit for bathing is common after heavy rains the formation of "black languages" in the sands of praias.65 Second report of the Municipal Department of the Environment, part of Ipanema, Arpoador and Red Beach, and Bica, Guanabara and Central (Urca), are considered unsuitable for bathing, given the fact that its sands have high concentration of coliforms and Escherichia coli bacteria, which indicates the presence of trash and fezes.66

There is, moreover, pollution signals in Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon done through a public-private partnership established in 2008 aims to ensure that by 2011, the lagoon waters are suitable for bathing. The clean-up actions involve the planning of the bed, with sludge transfer to large craters present in own pond, and the creation of a new direct and underground connection to the sea, which will help to increase the daily exchange of water between the two ambientes.67 68

City panorama highlighting the mountains of Corcovado (left), Sugar Loaf (center, background) and Brothers (right). Picture taken from the Chinese view, in the Tijuca National Park.