Visit curitiba in Brazil

Visit curitiba in Brazil

Curitiba is a Brazilian city, Paraná state capital, located 934 meters above sea level in the first plateau of Paraná, 7 to about 110 miles from the ocean Atlântico.11 Founded in 1693, from a small town pioneer, Curitiba became an important stop shopping with the opening of tropeira road between Sorocaba and Viamão.12 In 1853 became the capital of the newly emancipated Paraná Province and since then the city, known for its wide streets, 13 maintained a pace of urban growth strengthened by the arrival a large amount of European immigrants throughout the nineteenth century in German, Polish majority, Ukrainians and Italians, 14 contributing to the cultural diversity that remains today.

The city experienced several urban plans and laws aimed at containing their uncontrolled growth and that led her to become internationally famous for its urban innovations and care for the middle ambiente.15 The biggest one was on public transport, 16 17 18 which inspired the system TransMilenio in Bogotá transport system in Colombia. Today, the city has a sense of cosmopolitan life.

Curitiba also has high levels of education, the lowest illiteracy rate and the best quality in basic education to 20 capitais.19 The Mastercard Emerging Markets Index 2008, created with the intention to evaluate and compare the performance of cities in different functions that connect markets and commerce around the world, indicated Curitiba in 49th place among the cities with the greatest influence global.21

Curitiba was also cited in a recent survey published by Forbes magazine as the third most sagacious city in the world, which considers smart city that cares, jointly, to be environmentally sustainable, quality of life, good infrastructure and dynamism econômico.22 Curitiba is also one of the most influential Brazilian cities on the global stage, getting the global city classification range by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group & Network (GaWC) .23 However, some socio-economic problems continue to be city ​​considered the sixth most violent capital of the country.

Etymology and surname [edit | edit source]
Main article: Etymology of Curitiba
The etymology of Curitiba is known for its complexity and variable according to a lot of authors. According to Antenor springs, a term derived from the Tupi language "Ku'ri" ... pine + "Tuba" ... collective suffix: Very pine, pine forest. Former Curituba, the official spelling with "o" in the first syllable, was maintained at Corituba spelling, visible as curé ... pig + tyba ... very or Core + tyba ... many pigs. In dictionaries of Antonio Gonçalves Dias, Orlando Bordoni, Luiz Caldas Tibiriçá, Silveira Bueno and Teodoro Sampaio the same version is presented in a practical way, varying somewhat: curi-tyba ... many pine trees, pine forest. According to information given by the researcher Mario Arnaud Sampaio the term is derived from pure Guarani language, Kuri'yty, corruption of Kuri'yndy ... pine forest. The President of the State of Paraná, Affonso Alves de Camargo officially established the current spelling, Curitiba, through Decree-Law, signed dated 1919, because until that time the city's name was written in both ways: Curityba and Corityba , etyma diferenciados.25

The names of the natural inhabitants of the city is Curitiba, toponym of a municipality in the neighboring state of Santa Catarina, that is, the municipality of Curitibanos, city which the ancient inhabitants of Curitiba fundaram.26

Curitiba is responsible for some titles collected throughout history, being one of the nicknames that the people most familiar with the City of Smile. According to the availability of history, the birth of this name occurred in a vainglorious document that had, in an attempt to reverse the famous antipathy suffered by the people of cidade.1 Another title given to the municipality was Ecological Capital, because the city government's policies turn their attention to the sustentabilidade.1

History [edit | edit source]
Main article: History of Curitiba
Colonial period [edit | edit source]
The beginnings of the current city of Curitiba date back to the path made by the pioneers who came looking for gold, through Paranaguá, from Cubatao road. The head of the first official expedition that coordinated the exploitation of gold mines services in South Districts (with inclusion of Curitiba) was Eleodoro ebony Pereira. The first apparent names in the history of Curitiba, after Ebony Pereira, are Baltasar Carrasco dos Reis and Matthew Martins Leme. But according to historian Romario Martins: 25 27

"... This was not the first settler group Curitiba plateau. Before him there were those who founded the camp of miners more or less stable in the gold region crossed by Açungui paths and the Camp Burnt (South Bocaiuva) ", then Borda do Campo (Atuba) and Arraial Grande (São José dos Pinhais). 27 "
 
- Romario Martins.

Vilinha Cultural Center and sculpture of Chief Tindiquera, which would have marked the ground zero of Curitiba, in the neighboring city of Pinhais.
In 1668, Gabriel de Lara, the settler, was erected the pillory in the town of Our Lady of the Light Pinhais, under observation of a group of which encompassed seventeen settlers, beginning since then without interruption, the official history of Curitiba. 28 However, the São Paulo pioneer Lara Gabriel did not consider himself as the founder of Curitiba, with attribution to the fact Rio pioneer Eleodoro ebony Pereira by certain historiadores.25 27

There is a legend about the foundation of Curitiba, that a variety of historians analyzes, for which the first settlers groups are linked, the pioneer families Seixas, Soares and Andrade represent. These pioneers in unknown time, invited the chief of Tindiquera fields on the banks of the Iguaçu River, to ensure the indication of the best place to permanently install the povoação.27 With the chief, in front of a group of residents being brought in Native hand a huge stick, after his wanderings in great journey in a very large area of ​​fields, the soil was drilled by the rod and was told by the native chief the following word: "Here," and in that place rose a small chapel with construction of wattle-and-daub, in the same place where is located the parish church of Curitiba, substituting in its place by another, built of stone and clay, which was served the community from 1714 to 1866, when the masons built the Cathedral Metropolitana.27 25

On March 29, 1693, the town of Our Lady of Light dos Pinhais Curitiba became Vila.29 27 At that time, according to Romario Martins, and Matthew Martins Leme and Carrasco dos Reis, Barigui of residents were still considered inhabitants of a village: 27

"... Captain Antonio Rodrigues Seixas, village clerk in 1693, in Campo Magro; Manuel Soares and Aleixo Mendes Cabral in Passaúna, João Rodrigues Cid in Cajuru, Antonio Rodrigues Cid in Uberaba, etc. "
 
- Romario Martins.
There is no effective existence of a date on which year was just founded the nucleus of Our Lady of Light Pinhais, Curitiba later. But considering the records of dr. Raphael Pires Pardinho, Ombudsman General of the Village in 1721, is admitted to the year 1661 as oficial.25 27

In addition to mineral explorers, there was the emergence of ranchers in the fields and the remaining farmers (farmers to consume their own products they consume) in forest areas. Curitiba was located where were the miners and ranchers. But mining is not designed for long and began the shift of miners to Minas Gerais during the late seventeenth century. In the eighteenth century, livestock and cattle trade were fixed settlers and the region developed. The village was located in the cattle path, which opened in 1730, the Rio Grande do Sul to Minas Gerais to sell cattle and mules. After construction of a new road, why were not cut their fields, the village for some time, became isolada.30 12

Imperial period [edit | edit source]

Panorama of Curitiba, engraving Jean-Baptiste Debret, 1827.
Curitiba was elevated to a seat of county through Imperial Charter on December 19, 1812, and amounted to a city by the Provincial Law No. 5 of 5 February 1842. For the Imperial Law No 704 of 29 August 1853, Curitiba rose to the rank of capital of the newly created Province of Paraná, spun off from São Paulo.27 Province was a struggle of great hardness, the struggle for political emancipation of Paraná, in this victory his name forgotten many it was recorded in the annals of history. In 1853 the meetings of the municipal legislature occurred near the headquarters courtyard. The city parliament consisted of the following councilors: Benedict Eneas de Paula, Fidelis of Carrao Silva, Manuel José da Silva Bittencourt, Floriano Berlintes de Castro, Francisco de Paula Guimarães, José Ignacio de Morais, Francisco Borges de Macedo, Antonio Ricardo Lustosa of Andrade, having as president Colonel Manuel Antonio Ferreira.25 27

In 1820, already in the city then was called Our Lady of Light dos Pinhais Curitiba, were counted 220 houses. But when they began to exploit and commercialize the yerba mate and the wood was set off a new driven growth. 22 years later, with 5819 inhabitants, amounted to a city. In 1854, he was chosen to be the capital of Paraná.30 12 Province

The provincial government was promoting at the time of immigration that came from Europe, especially Italy and Poland. Were founded, since 1867, 35 colonial settlements in the lands of mixed rain forest on the outskirts of Curitiba fields. In the city was known a new progressive outbreak. Agriculture was developed and initiated industrialização.30 12

Since immigration that triggered the Paraná in 1829 in the city of Curitiba were received from various sides, many families in a variety of times and with a greater difference of nationalities. Curitiba was targeted by voluntary immigration. Over the years, society and the economy culture Curitiba received influences this transfer of foreign to Brasil.27

Republican period [edit | edit source]

Curitiba map in 1894.
In 1894, due to the federalist revolution, the revolutionary troops, under the command of Gumercindo Saraiva, invaded and dominated Curitiba. At that time, by order of the whole of government summit, under the leadership of governor, Dr. Vicente Machado, was abandoned the capital, finding refuge in Castro for four months, from January 18 to April 18. The return of the state government only came to Curitiba after we finished the cerco.25 27

One of the events of major expression of Curitiba history took place in 1912 when it was founded the Federal University of Paraná, which Victor Ferreira do Amaral, Nile Cairo and Pamphili of Assumption were responsible for planning and implementation. After established the Republic in Brazil, the first mayor who ruled Curitiba was Cândido Ferreira de Abreu (May 1893 to December 1894) .27 In 1911, the municipality is constituted only by the district headquarters; already in 1929 the municipality subdivided into six districts of peace. They were: Campo Magro, New Poland, Gate, St. Casimir's Taboao, Santa Felicidade and the Sede.31 district According to the Territorial Division of 1936 in the region of Curitiba were understood three terms, the headquarters (Piraquara, White River and Tamandaré), the Araucaria and the Columbus (Bocaiuva and Campina Grande). Under the State Law No. 1452, of December 14, 1953, we established the new judicial division of the city, with the establishment of ten Judicial Districts, which were: Headquarters, Gate, Taboao, Barreirinha, Boqueirao, Cajuru, Field Long Santa Felicidade, Umbará and Tatuquara.25 27


Overview of Curitiba in 1900, with data on that progression: 1780 (2,949 inhab.), 1857 (10,000 inhab.), 1858 (11,313 inhab.), 1872 (11,730 inhab.), 1890 (24,553 inhab.), 1900 ( 50,124 inhab.).
In the twentieth, after World War century, the city progressed due primarily to expanded production of coffee in northern Paraná, and encouraged agriculture, particularly in the western state. 30 12

Is being developed in Curitiba a humanizing plan of the city that the mayor Jaime Lerner began in 1972. Thus, not only the face of the city center is being modified, but also the mentality of the population to improve their quality of life. In 1989, Jaime Lerner, who was elected in 1988, took possession of the new Curitiba.30 12 Prefecture

In 1820 Curitiba was visited by the French scholar Saint-Hilaire, who marveled at the city, and in certain parts of your notes are the following words spoken 25 27

"... The streets are wide and almost regular ... the public square is square, very large and grass covered ... churches are three in number, all built of stone ... nowhere else in Brazil I had seen so many truly white men, as in Curitiba district ... pronounce the Portuguese without changing that reveals the mixture of caucasica race with red ... are big and beautiful, has brown hair and rosy complexion, pleasant manners ... women are more delicate features than the other parts of the Empire where I traveled. They hide less and talk with ease. "
 
- Auguste de Saint-Hillaire.
This description reflects the civilized and determined character of the people of Curitiba in 1820, for which he was based at Curitiba in the late twentieth century. Of Curitiba's Speedy, the Wire Opera House, the Rua das Flores and 24th Street Horas.25 27

Geography [edit | edit source]

Partial satellite image of the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba.
Curitiba is located in southern Brazil, in the eastern state of Paraná, on the region called First Plateau of Paraná, specifically in its less wavy part. It is the capital of the sixth most populous federal unit of Brasil.32 The municipal area, according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, is 435.036 km², of which 4 319.4697 km² constitute the urban area (2000) .7 Situa- the 25º25'40 "south latitude and 49º16'23" W and is at a distance of 1386 kilometers south of the capital federal.33 It has a north-south length of 35 km and east-west and 20 km34 its neighboring municipalities are Admiral Tamandaré and Colombo, the north; Pine forests and Pinhais, east; Fazenda Rio Grande, south; Slim and Field, Long Beach and Araucaria the oeste.35

Geomorphology [edit | edit source]

Mountain range of Serra do Mar view of Curitiba Center.
The average altitude of the municipality is 934.6 m above sea level, and the location of maximum altitude is north, being matched to the dimension of 1021 m, the Small Lamenha neighborhood, being given a topographic feature of on landform, comprised of slopes greater stress, close to the mountain region of Açungui. The lowest point is located in the neighborhood of Caximba on the banks of the Iguaçu River, at an altitude of 865 m.36 37 35 A series of staggered terraces are interspersed between high and low altitudes, featuring Curitiba as a slight wave of a topography hills with gentle rounding, being given a face relative regularidade.36

In the city's outskirts are found sediments of the sedimentary basin of Curitiba, belonging to Guabirotuba training that occurred during the Quaternary Old or Pleistocene, filled by an old and great depression. The municipality is part of the First Paraná Plateau, which Reinhard Maack described (1981) as "a eversiva area which the Serra do Mar to the Devonian Escarpment, being shown a recent erosion plane above an antique trunk folds. Separating the Curitiba Paraná coast is present the Serra do Mar, which can be seen the city in days claros.36

 

Rio Iguaçu, in the passage by Umbará neighborhood, south of the city region.
Curitiba is in the catchment area of ​​the Iguaçu River, located on the right bank and east of the largest sub-basin of the Paraná River. The most important constituents of the six rivers basins of the municipal territory, born in the Serra do Mar, are in addition to the Iguaçu, Atuba, Bethlehem, Barigui, Passaúna, stream of Padilhas in its entirety with rivers draining aspects that run on all directions, with similar branches of árvores.38

The most extensive river basin Curitiba is the Barigui river, which cuts the city north of the south and covers 139.9 square kilometers of the municipal area. To the south is located at river watershed of Padilhas, with an area of ​​33.6 km², less extensive valley. As relief from Curitiba is predominantly higher north of the city, the six watersheds in their entirety, make the race towards the south of the city to empty into the Iguaçu River, the most important of Curitiba, which in turn plays its waters on the Parana River in the far west of estado.38

Because of the abundance of rain, the rivers of Curitiba are the causative agents of the regularity of the floods, which constantly worries the population and public administration. Today, after many studies on the local waterways, almost all the rivers are in the process canalização.39


Main article: Climate of Curitiba

Frost in the Botanical Garden during the cold snap July 2013.
Curitiba has a temperate climate (Cfb according to the climatic classification of Köppen), with average temperatures below 18 ° C in the winter months, 40 sometimes falling to near 0 ° C, in days more frios.41 On the other hand , the local climate is also influenced by the masses of dry air that dominate the south-central Brazil, bringing cold and dry weather especially in winter, when 42 the occurrence of frost is comum.43 The rainfall is abundant throughout the year, without the occurrence of a seca.40 station often cold fronts coming from Antarctica and Argentina throughout the year bring tropical storms in summer and cold winds in inverno.44

The occurrence of snow and other kinds of cool season rainfall, such as freezing rain, is recorded on average once every ten years and may occur over a decade without registration and more than one record in the same decade, and therefore phenomena frequency irregular.45 Officially, the snow a greater or lesser intensity was recorded in the years 1889, 1892, 1912, 1928 (two days), 1942, 1957, 1975, 1979 and most recently in 2013.45 The blizzard 1975 was one of the most intense and left the city covered with snow during the day July 17 that ano.46 47 There is also no official records of occurrence of the phenomenon in low intensity in the years 1955, 1965, 1981 (the local print media arrived to record material with photo on the phenomenon in some parts of the city) and 1988.48 49

According to the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET), since 1961 the lowest temperature recorded in Curitiba was -5.4 ° C on 2 September 1972.50 while the highest reached 35.2 ° C on 17 November 1985.51 The highest cumulative rainfall recorded in 24 hours was 146.2 mm on 22 February 1999.52 and the highest accumulated in a month was 473.8 mm in January 1995.53 The lower moisture content of the air was 15% in the days June 27, 1987, September 1, 1994 and September 10, 1995.54

 

Curitiba situa-se no domínio vegetacional que denomina-se floresta ombrófila mista